The Technology Behind Ion Pumps

The invention of ion pumps is credited to a pair of individuals which have since become responsible for the arrival of Agilent Ion Getter Pumps; and this is widely regarded in the scientific community as a milestone in human innovation which made Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) applications possible. Without the development of the ion pump, the scientific field of UHV and all of the associated applications it brings would be non-existent.

Prior to the arrival of turbo molecular pumps, ion pumps were used in most vacuum applications which required high pressures of 10-6mbar. When turbo molecular pumps became commonplace, ion pumps developed and improved in order to compete. They underwent a series of improvements in order to reach 10-9mbar. Due to this improvement, ion pumps are widely acknowledged within the surface science community as the cleanest and most efficient way to achieve ultra high vacuum.

But how do ion pumps work? It is a well known fact that an ion pump is something that functions without moving parts, and it captures and holds gas molecules by converting them into solid compounds. These solid compounds are then bound in the ion pump – which allows the pump to hold a vacuum even when it is not in operation. An ion pump works with absolutely no vibration and is also shock-free. An added plus of an ion pump is the minimal maintenance associated.

Ion Pump Assembly

In order for the ion pump to achieve and then maintain ultra high vacuum; electron cloud development, gas molecule ionisation and ion impact is essential. An ion pump is made up of one or more elements for pumping.

The elements themselves are of special note in an ion pump as they do the actual pumping work. The anodes within them are made up of varying metal cylinder which are welded together in a honeycomb style. At the very centre of each cylinder is a penning cell; essentially, the more cells an anode had, the higher the pumping speed of the element itself. They are located between the two cathodes, and are separated from them by a gap which gas travels through. Electronically speaking, they are insulated via ceramic insulators. The anode and its corresponding cathode are then connected tightly and then insulated themselves.

The housing then covers the elements, which creates a small vacuum chamber which has pockets to hold the pumping elements of the ion pump.

Titanium Sublimation Pumps and Ion Pumps

Not to be confused with an ion pump; a titanium sublimation pump is a useful accompaniment – they tend to have a higher speed for pumping some gases, though of course the speed does vary dependent on which gas. A titanium sublimation pump works by heating filaments of titanium alloy until the titanium itself sublimates from the surface of this filament into the vacuum which is created.

The titanium this precipitates onto the surrounding surfaces within the vacuum and forms a thin layer over it. This layer has a high pumping speed when it is combined with a reactive gas, and it can be further boosted by cooling the surfaces through the introduction of water or liquid nitrogen, depending on the material.


Industrial Flooring – The dos and don’ts of resin flooring

When it comes to resin flooring there rear a few things that you need to make sure that at all costs you do not do, and somethings that you absolutely should do.


Invest in a top of the line dust mop

Two words: dust. Mop.

Dust and grit are two factors that will dull your floor pretty quickly if they are not dealt with. This is because they are abrasive and can gradually wear your floor down, stripping off the finish completely. So in answer to this you should get yourself a great dust mop. This will make cleaning easy and possible to trap as much debris as possible – protecting the floor long term for industry.

Wash the floor once a week.

Epoxy flooring takes a good while to completely cure – you will want to prevent dust from sticking to the surface. In addition to this daily sweeping, you should wash the floor once a week with an epoxy safe cleaner. While you might need to let a mix of cleaner and water briefly sit to loosen any stray debris- do NOT Let it dry on the surface or you are going to have a real problem on your hands. This leaves a slippery residue that could harm the epoxy.

Make sure that you carry out an initial floor cleaning before you use an area, and take good care when installing the equipment on the new floor. Here heavy equipment can mark or even damage the floor!!

Have a regular cleaning schedule for example – clean your floor regularly to stay on top of dust or dirt build up! Maintain heavily trafficked areas- for example entrances where levels of dirt, debris, and wear are the highest.

You must clean up spills immediately. You should remove all traces of oil and grease in the first instance with an aqueous solution of alkaline detergent. Youi can ensure that cleaning and maintenance levels are actually higher in areas subject to accidental contamination by the chemicals that are included in bacterial or radioactive materials.

Make sure that you implement brushes instead of anything like mops if your resin flooring has a textured surface. It will ensure that grooves and ridges in the flooring are properly cleaned.

Do not

 Use any waxes or sealant, as epoxy floors are designed to be not only resilient and self-protecting so you wouldn’t need to apply any additional coats. Doing this could actually make the surface EVEN MORE slippery and you could end up with a nasty lawsuit on your hands –good old fashioned cleaning will be enough to keep the floor looking its best. Even substances that are advertised as safe for resin floors can be unpredictable interactions with the material. When you wash your entire flooring system with a completely new cleaner. Test it in a small and inconspicuous area, such as a corner that is normally hidden by furniture. If you do not notice any discolouration or unusual results – you can get that cleaner across the whole floor.



Tips on How to Select a Building Contractor

Whatever the project, it is important to hire commercial or industrial building contractors who have experience in technical matters and mastery of building materials. In short, you must use the services of a trusted building contractor before building a commercial or industrial building. How to choose it? The method is quite simple; you only need to visit the General Entrepreneur service or try some of the following tips:

Search for information from acquaintances – Word of mouth is still one of the best ways to find quality services. Try asking for information from your friends and acquaintances who have used the services of a contractor for their building. You can contact several friends via video call, telephone, email, message, etc.

Don’t be in a hurry – Being rushed can hurt you and create headaches. In a hurry also eliminate concentration so that it forgets important things. Don’t be in a hurry to find a construction contractor for your building; begin to determine the contractor’s criteria carefully and make decisions based on observations.

Talk to several contractors – Starting to make phone calls with several contractors is a smart way to get the best service. Ask them questions and feel the way they work. What is the portfolio and the results of their work in the field? If needed do a survey. In essence, you have to do a comparison to find which General Entrepreneur is better equipped to realize your vision of building commercial or industrial buildings.

Ask for references – Outstanding building contractors are usually willing to provide a list of strong references, and this is a golden opportunity for you to follow up on. A list of references can be your material in making decisions.

Ask the right questions – Find out more about how they work, how many projects do they take at once? What is their main area of expertise? Do they work with subcontractors? Do they have a trusted supplier network? How long did they run this business? Prepare all questions in the list and give them all to the contractor. It is recommended to ask questions according to your needs.

Some of the tips above are expected to help you to start finding suitable contractors for your project. Remember! To get good results you should make sacrifices both of time and energy.

The process of finding a commercial or industrial contractor takes time and research, if you do it well it will give you beautiful fruit. If you are a busy person and do not have time because of work, then you can access

Primary Types of Industrial – Dyes and Pigments

Industrial coloring is quite often used in various industries today; so does the pigment. If we talk about industrial dyes, they are basically coloring, ionizing, and aromatic compounds used in various applications in various industries. Coloring has the character to show affinity for the media. However, they must be used with caution because some industrial dyes are toxic and carcinogenic. However, nowadays, dyes find their application in industries such as plastics, cement, cosmetics, rubber, paper, textiles, medicines, and others. Some of the main varieties of industrial dyes are mentioned below:

Optical Brighteners: Also known as optical agents, optical brighteners are the dyes that possess the attribute of absorbing the violet and ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum, which results in the prominent re-emission of light in the blue region. This dye is not suitable to be used in water (like in aquarium, etc.), due to its toxic nature.

Digital Textile Printing Dyes: In digital printing, computer controlled ink-jet nozzles or charged drums are used. The physical surfaces over which the digital prints are reproduced include common paper, photographic paper, plastic, cloth, etc. The popular varieties of dyes used for this purpose are acid inks, disperse inks, reactive inks, and dye based inks.

Leather Dyes: Tanneries usually make use of around 50-100 different varieties of leather dyes. Each dye produces a diverse desired effect over the leather. The dyes used in this industry include direct, acid, mordant, reactive, and basic dyes, among others.

Sublimation Dyes: These dyes primarily found their application in various types of printing. They can be found in several forms like inkjet inks, ribbons for thermal transfer, and toner for laser printers. Sublimation dyes are applied by the process called heat-transfer. Their main varieties include acid, disperse, vat, direct, and reactive.

Now, as you might have got some idea about the industrial dyes and their primary varieties, let’s discuss about industrial pigments and their types. Pigments are basically the materials that make a modification in the color of the transmitted light owing to their attribute of selective absorption of the wavelength. The change in the transmission of light varies with fluorescence, phosphorescence, as well as with other forms of luminescence, in which a material emits light. Pigments are generally used in inks, coloring paints, cosmetics, eatables, etc. Nowadays there are various types of pigments available in the market, out of which some primary types of pigments are given under:

Fluorescent Pigments: These pigments have the quality of changing the ultraviolet light into the desired color. They form the vital element of any kind of fluorescent material. The fluorescent pigments are mostly used in textile field, solvent based paper coating, and paints and aerosol coating.

CLC Pigments: Cholesteric Liquid Crystal (CLC) pigments are made from CLC films. These pigments are nowadays increasingly used in security machines and also as an impediment to the counterfeit of currency notes, legal documents, etc.

Ultramarine Pigments: They are a kind of inorganic pigments, which are non-poisonous and non-irritating in nature. They are also one of the oldest varieties of pigments. They have two basic types, viz., ultramarine blue and ultramarine violet. Ultramarine pigments found their application in coating, coloring, printing inks, cosmetics, and artist colors.

Organic Pigments: Organic pigments consist of solid particles and they are insoluble in the application medium. There are two basic varieties of these pigments, namely natural and synthetic. Organic pigments are generally used for coloring or coating purposes (both decorative and protective) on plastics, candles, paper, rubber materials, pharmaceuticals, etc.

Electronic Manufacturing Services

You might have a cellphone in your pocket, or somewhere close. Think about how you feel when you accidentally leave it at home. You knocked on your pocket, immediately realized that something was wrong and realization was made – “I forgot my call.” However, imagine a world where the cellphone might not exist. It takes a lot to make a telephone, but without electronic manufacturing services – nothing is possible. Electronic manufacturing services, otherwise known by the acronym EMS are one of the most critical industrial processes in existence when it comes to getting you the products you’ve grown to rely on every day.

When surface mount technology came into existence, it enabled for electronic components to be mounted onto the surface of printed circuit boards, or PCB’s. This eventually made manufacturers capable of rapidly assembling electronics, making them widely available for the general public. For example, when you interact with your computer an electrical charge is sent from one point another using the copper pathways (or traces) laid into the surface of the printed circuit board, providing a completed circuit. When a charge is sent along that circuit, it typically interact with the parts of the circuit board that do the actual work, such as a diode, microchip, or switch.

While printed circuit boards are not the end all be all of electrical connection, they surely make a great deal possible, allowing for smaller devices, miniature components, and much smaller space requirements. Before PCB’s were the standard, a standard electronic device like a television was powered not by a circuit board but by a mess of cables all individually connected to a power supply. So while we might have some of the things we do know, picture a far more antiquated version. Your mobile phone would not fit in your pocket, it would fit in a briefcase and your television would not neatly mount on your wall, it would require a 4 foot deep entertainment center.

You might be wondering where electronic manufacturing services fit into the mix, and the answer is very early. After printed circuit boards are produced, EMS providers are responsible for a wide range of services ranging from basic circuit board assembly and electromechanical assembly to surface installation, flexible circuit assembly, testing, and more. This is a type of operation that adds guts to printed circuit boards, giving them the ability to actually do something more than passing electric charges from one point to another. With EMS, providers can quickly and efficiently integrate and test these devices so that people like us can have ultra portable and high-performance electronics. Or, thought from another perspective, EMS is also used to assemble electronic components for space, military and defense applications – placing missiles reliably in the sky and rockets successfully into orbit. If you think not having a cell phone is bad, think about how a lack of effective electronic manufacturing will have an impact on organizations such as the defense department.